Linux 使用 youtube-dl 下載 YouTube

電腦軟體摸久了,也習慣透過軟體下載 YouTube 的影片,不過我覺得透過指令更過癮,可能這就是 Linux 系統工程師的喜好吧!youtube-dl 是一個很方便的工具,還真是讓我輕輕鬆鬆就能下載影片,他還能選擇影片畫質、選擇影片字幕、下載縮圖等等,help 功能秀出來就可以看到各種參數選項,代表可以玩到很細節的部分,這是一般軟體功能做不到的,只有透過指令才能讓自己的下載更加完美,來簡單看看如何運作吧!

wget https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl

△ 下載最重要的指令檔案。
chmod +x youtube-dl

△ 設定可以執行,我個人習慣將指令檔案放到個人家目錄的 bin 底下。

yum install python

△ 需要安裝 python 才可以執行,我用 redhat 系列直接 yum 安裝即可。

youtube-dl -F https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzSJfp6neVo

△ 透過 -F 的參數列出所有可以下載的影片格式大小,以下為範例的結果:

[youtube] mzSJfp6neVo: Downloading webpage
[youtube] mzSJfp6neVo: Downloading video info webpage
[youtube] mzSJfp6neVo: Extracting video information
[info] Available formats for mzSJfp6neVo:
format code  extension  resolution note
249          webm       audio only DASH audio   47k , opus @ 50k, 3.06MiB
250          webm       audio only DASH audio   61k , opus @ 70k, 3.98MiB
171          webm       audio only DASH audio  110k , vorbis@128k, 7.21MiB
251          webm       audio only DASH audio  120k , opus @160k, 7.85MiB
140          m4a        audio only DASH audio  131k , m4a_dash container, mp4a.40.2@128k, 8.81MiB
278          webm       256x144    144p  104k , webm container, vp9, 30fps, video only, 6.52MiB
160          mp4        256x144    144p  114k , avc1.4d400c, 30fps, video only, 7.44MiB
242          webm       426x240    240p  232k , vp9, 30fps, video only, 14.80MiB
133          mp4        426x240    240p  252k , avc1.4d4015, 30fps, video only, 16.24MiB
243          webm       640x360    360p  470k , vp9, 30fps, video only, 27.29MiB
134          mp4        640x360    360p  652k , avc1.4d401e, 30fps, video only, 41.65MiB
244          webm       854x480    480p  801k , vp9, 30fps, video only, 49.88MiB
135          mp4        854x480    480p 1210k , avc1.4d401f, 30fps, video only, 76.31MiB
247          webm       1280x720   720p 1567k , vp9, 30fps, video only, 99.10MiB
136          mp4        1280x720   720p 2405k , avc1.4d401f, 30fps, video only, 149.64MiB
17           3gp        176x144    small , mp4v.20.3, mp4a.40.2@ 24k, 5.16MiB
36           3gp        320x180    small , mp4v.20.3, mp4a.40.2, 14.95MiB
18           mp4        640x360    medium , avc1.42001E, mp4a.40.2@ 96k, 50.26MiB
43           webm       640x360    medium , vp8.0, vorbis@128k, 67.35MiB
22           mp4        1280x720   hd720 , avc1.64001F, mp4a.40.2@192k (best)

youtube-dl -f 22 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzSJfp6neVo

△ 下載指定格式的檔案,剛剛列表最前方就是編號,透過 -f <編號> 的方式。

youtube-dl -f 22 -o 123.mp4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzSJfp6neVo

△ -o 參數可以設定下載檔案名稱,預設會是影片名稱。

youtube-dl --list-thumbnails https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzSJfp6neVo

△ --list-thumbnails 可以列出影片縮圖,若是常常保存影片,順便下載縮圖也很棒!透過 --write-thumbnail 就可以一並下載縮圖。

能用的功能真的超級多,最後列出所有的參數選項給大家參考

# youtube-dl -h
Usage: youtube-dl [OPTIONS] URL [URL...]

Options:
  General Options:
    -h, --help                       Print this help text and exit
    --version                        Print program version and exit
    -U, --update                     Update this program to latest version. Make sure that you have sufficient permissions (run with sudo if needed)
    -i, --ignore-errors              Continue on download errors, for example to skip unavailable videos in a playlist
    --abort-on-error                 Abort downloading of further videos (in the playlist or the command line) if an error occurs
    --dump-user-agent                Display the current browser identification
    --list-extractors                List all supported extractors
    --extractor-descriptions         Output descriptions of all supported extractors
    --force-generic-extractor        Force extraction to use the generic extractor
    --default-search PREFIX          Use this prefix for unqualified URLs. For example "gvsearch2:" downloads two videos from google videos for youtube-dl "large apple". Use the value
                                     "auto" to let youtube-dl guess ("auto_warning" to emit a warning when guessing). "error" just throws an error. The default value "fixup_error"
                                     repairs broken URLs, but emits an error if this is not possible instead of searching.
    --ignore-config                  Do not read configuration files. When given in the global configuration file /etc/youtube-dl.conf: Do not read the user configuration in ~/.config
                                     /youtube-dl/config (%APPDATA%/youtube-dl/config.txt on Windows)
    --config-location PATH           Location of the configuration file; either the path to the config or its containing directory.
    --flat-playlist                  Do not extract the videos of a playlist, only list them.
    --mark-watched                   Mark videos watched (YouTube only)
    --no-mark-watched                Do not mark videos watched (YouTube only)
    --no-color                       Do not emit color codes in output

  Network Options:
    --proxy URL                      Use the specified HTTP/HTTPS/SOCKS proxy. To enable experimental SOCKS proxy, specify a proper scheme. For example socks5://127.0.0.1:1080/. Pass in
                                     an empty string (--proxy "") for direct connection
    --socket-timeout SECONDS         Time to wait before giving up, in seconds
    --source-address IP              Client-side IP address to bind to
    -4, --force-ipv4                 Make all connections via IPv4
    -6, --force-ipv6                 Make all connections via IPv6

  Geo Restriction:
    --geo-verification-proxy URL     Use this proxy to verify the IP address for some geo-restricted sites. The default proxy specified by --proxy (or none, if the option is not
                                     present) is used for the actual downloading.
    --geo-bypass                     Bypass geographic restriction via faking X-Forwarded-For HTTP header (experimental)
    --no-geo-bypass                  Do not bypass geographic restriction via faking X-Forwarded-For HTTP header (experimental)
    --geo-bypass-country CODE        Force bypass geographic restriction with explicitly provided two-letter ISO 3166-2 country code (experimental)
    --geo-bypass-ip-block IP_BLOCK   Force bypass geographic restriction with explicitly provided IP block in CIDR notation (experimental)

  Video Selection:
    --playlist-start NUMBER          Playlist video to start at (default is 1)
    --playlist-end NUMBER            Playlist video to end at (default is last)
    --playlist-items ITEM_SPEC       Playlist video items to download. Specify indices of the videos in the playlist separated by commas like: "--playlist-items 1,2,5,8" if you want to
                                     download videos indexed 1, 2, 5, 8 in the playlist. You can specify range: "--playlist-items 1-3,7,10-13", it will download the videos at index 1,
                                     2, 3, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 13.
    --match-title REGEX              Download only matching titles (regex or caseless sub-string)
    --reject-title REGEX             Skip download for matching titles (regex or caseless sub-string)
    --max-downloads NUMBER           Abort after downloading NUMBER files
    --min-filesize SIZE              Do not download any videos smaller than SIZE (e.g. 50k or 44.6m)
    --max-filesize SIZE              Do not download any videos larger than SIZE (e.g. 50k or 44.6m)
    --date DATE                      Download only videos uploaded in this date
    --datebefore DATE                Download only videos uploaded on or before this date (i.e. inclusive)
    --dateafter DATE                 Download only videos uploaded on or after this date (i.e. inclusive)
    --min-views COUNT                Do not download any videos with less than COUNT views
    --max-views COUNT                Do not download any videos with more than COUNT views
    --match-filter FILTER            Generic video filter. Specify any key (see the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for a list of available keys) to match if the key is present, !key to check if the
                                     key is not present, key > NUMBER (like "comment_count > 12", also works with >=, <, <=, !=, =) to compare against a number, key = 'LITERAL' (like
                                     "uploader = 'Mike Smith'", also works with !=) to match against a string literal and & to require multiple matches. Values which are not known are
                                     excluded unless you put a question mark (?) after the operator. For example, to only match videos that have been liked more than 100 times and
                                     disliked less than 50 times (or the dislike functionality is not available at the given service), but who also have a description, use --match-
                                     filter "like_count > 100 & dislike_count <? 50 & description" .
    --no-playlist                    Download only the video, if the URL refers to a video and a playlist.
    --yes-playlist                   Download the playlist, if the URL refers to a video and a playlist.
    --age-limit YEARS                Download only videos suitable for the given age
    --download-archive FILE          Download only videos not listed in the archive file. Record the IDs of all downloaded videos in it.
    --include-ads                    Download advertisements as well (experimental)

  Download Options:
    -r, --limit-rate RATE            Maximum download rate in bytes per second (e.g. 50K or 4.2M)
    -R, --retries RETRIES            Number of retries (default is 10), or "infinite".
    --fragment-retries RETRIES       Number of retries for a fragment (default is 10), or "infinite" (DASH, hlsnative and ISM)
    --skip-unavailable-fragments     Skip unavailable fragments (DASH, hlsnative and ISM)
    --abort-on-unavailable-fragment  Abort downloading when some fragment is not available
    --keep-fragments                 Keep downloaded fragments on disk after downloading is finished; fragments are erased by default
    --buffer-size SIZE               Size of download buffer (e.g. 1024 or 16K) (default is 1024)
    --no-resize-buffer               Do not automatically adjust the buffer size. By default, the buffer size is automatically resized from an initial value of SIZE.
    --http-chunk-size SIZE           Size of a chunk for chunk-based HTTP downloading (e.g. 10485760 or 10M) (default is disabled). May be useful for bypassing bandwidth throttling
                                     imposed by a webserver (experimental)
    --playlist-reverse               Download playlist videos in reverse order
    --playlist-random                Download playlist videos in random order
    --xattr-set-filesize             Set file xattribute ytdl.filesize with expected file size (experimental)
    --hls-prefer-native              Use the native HLS downloader instead of ffmpeg
    --hls-prefer-ffmpeg              Use ffmpeg instead of the native HLS downloader
    --hls-use-mpegts                 Use the mpegts container for HLS videos, allowing to play the video while downloading (some players may not be able to play it)
    --external-downloader COMMAND    Use the specified external downloader. Currently supports aria2c,avconv,axel,curl,ffmpeg,httpie,wget
    --external-downloader-args ARGS  Give these arguments to the external downloader

  Filesystem Options:
    -a, --batch-file FILE            File containing URLs to download ('-' for stdin), one URL per line. Lines starting with '#', ';' or ']' are considered as comments and ignored.
    --id                             Use only video ID in file name
    -o, --output TEMPLATE            Output filename template, see the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for all the info
    --autonumber-start NUMBER        Specify the start value for %(autonumber)s (default is 1)
    --restrict-filenames             Restrict filenames to only ASCII characters, and avoid "&" and spaces in filenames
    -w, --no-overwrites              Do not overwrite files
    -c, --continue                   Force resume of partially downloaded files. By default, youtube-dl will resume downloads if possible.
    --no-continue                    Do not resume partially downloaded files (restart from beginning)
    --no-part                        Do not use .part files - write directly into output file
    --no-mtime                       Do not use the Last-modified header to set the file modification time
    --write-description              Write video description to a .description file
    --write-info-json                Write video metadata to a .info.json file
    --write-annotations              Write video annotations to a .annotations.xml file
    --load-info-json FILE            JSON file containing the video information (created with the "--write-info-json" option)
    --cookies FILE                   File to read cookies from and dump cookie jar in
    --cache-dir DIR                  Location in the filesystem where youtube-dl can store some downloaded information permanently. By default $XDG_CACHE_HOME/youtube-dl or ~/.cache
                                     /youtube-dl . At the moment, only YouTube player files (for videos with obfuscated signatures) are cached, but that may change.
    --no-cache-dir                   Disable filesystem caching
    --rm-cache-dir                   Delete all filesystem cache files

  Thumbnail images:
    --write-thumbnail                Write thumbnail image to disk
    --write-all-thumbnails           Write all thumbnail image formats to disk
    --list-thumbnails                Simulate and list all available thumbnail formats

  Verbosity / Simulation Options:
    -q, --quiet                      Activate quiet mode
    --no-warnings                    Ignore warnings
    -s, --simulate                   Do not download the video and do not write anything to disk
    --skip-download                  Do not download the video
    -g, --get-url                    Simulate, quiet but print URL
    -e, --get-title                  Simulate, quiet but print title
    --get-id                         Simulate, quiet but print id
    --get-thumbnail                  Simulate, quiet but print thumbnail URL
    --get-description                Simulate, quiet but print video description
    --get-duration                   Simulate, quiet but print video length
    --get-filename                   Simulate, quiet but print output filename
    --get-format                     Simulate, quiet but print output format
    -j, --dump-json                  Simulate, quiet but print JSON information. See the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for a description of available keys.
    -J, --dump-single-json           Simulate, quiet but print JSON information for each command-line argument. If the URL refers to a playlist, dump the whole playlist information in a
                                     single line.
    --print-json                     Be quiet and print the video information as JSON (video is still being downloaded).
    --newline                        Output progress bar as new lines
    --no-progress                    Do not print progress bar
    --console-title                  Display progress in console titlebar
    -v, --verbose                    Print various debugging information
    --dump-pages                     Print downloaded pages encoded using base64 to debug problems (very verbose)
    --write-pages                    Write downloaded intermediary pages to files in the current directory to debug problems
    --print-traffic                  Display sent and read HTTP traffic
    -C, --call-home                  Contact the youtube-dl server for debugging
    --no-call-home                   Do NOT contact the youtube-dl server for debugging

  Workarounds:
    --encoding ENCODING              Force the specified encoding (experimental)
    --no-check-certificate           Suppress HTTPS certificate validation
    --prefer-insecure                Use an unencrypted connection to retrieve information about the video. (Currently supported only for YouTube)
    --user-agent UA                  Specify a custom user agent
    --referer URL                    Specify a custom referer, use if the video access is restricted to one domain
    --add-header FIELD:VALUE         Specify a custom HTTP header and its value, separated by a colon ':'. You can use this option multiple times
    --bidi-workaround                Work around terminals that lack bidirectional text support. Requires bidiv or fribidi executable in PATH
    --sleep-interval SECONDS         Number of seconds to sleep before each download when used alone or a lower bound of a range for randomized sleep before each download (minimum
                                     possible number of seconds to sleep) when used along with --max-sleep-interval.
    --max-sleep-interval SECONDS     Upper bound of a range for randomized sleep before each download (maximum possible number of seconds to sleep). Must only be used along with --min-
                                     sleep-interval.

  Video Format Options:
    -f, --format FORMAT              Video format code, see the "FORMAT SELECTION" for all the info
    --all-formats                    Download all available video formats
    --prefer-free-formats            Prefer free video formats unless a specific one is requested
    -F, --list-formats               List all available formats of requested videos
    --youtube-skip-dash-manifest     Do not download the DASH manifests and related data on YouTube videos
    --merge-output-format FORMAT     If a merge is required (e.g. bestvideo+bestaudio), output to given container format. One of mkv, mp4, ogg, webm, flv. Ignored if no merge is
                                     required

  Subtitle Options:
    --write-sub                      Write subtitle file
    --write-auto-sub                 Write automatically generated subtitle file (YouTube only)
    --all-subs                       Download all the available subtitles of the video
    --list-subs                      List all available subtitles for the video
    --sub-format FORMAT              Subtitle format, accepts formats preference, for example: "srt" or "ass/srt/best"
    --sub-lang LANGS                 Languages of the subtitles to download (optional) separated by commas, use --list-subs for available language tags

  Authentication Options:
    -u, --username USERNAME          Login with this account ID
    -p, --password PASSWORD          Account password. If this option is left out, youtube-dl will ask interactively.
    -2, --twofactor TWOFACTOR        Two-factor authentication code
    -n, --netrc                      Use .netrc authentication data
    --video-password PASSWORD        Video password (vimeo, smotri, youku)

  Adobe Pass Options:
    --ap-mso MSO                     Adobe Pass multiple-system operator (TV provider) identifier, use --ap-list-mso for a list of available MSOs
    --ap-username USERNAME           Multiple-system operator account login
    --ap-password PASSWORD           Multiple-system operator account password. If this option is left out, youtube-dl will ask interactively.
    --ap-list-mso                    List all supported multiple-system operators

  Post-processing Options:
    -x, --extract-audio              Convert video files to audio-only files (requires ffmpeg or avconv and ffprobe or avprobe)
    --audio-format FORMAT            Specify audio format: "best", "aac", "flac", "mp3", "m4a", "opus", "vorbis", or "wav"; "best" by default; No effect without -x
    --audio-quality QUALITY          Specify ffmpeg/avconv audio quality, insert a value between 0 (better) and 9 (worse) for VBR or a specific bitrate like 128K (default 5)
    --recode-video FORMAT            Encode the video to another format if necessary (currently supported: mp4|flv|ogg|webm|mkv|avi)
    --postprocessor-args ARGS        Give these arguments to the postprocessor
    -k, --keep-video                 Keep the video file on disk after the post-processing; the video is erased by default
    --no-post-overwrites             Do not overwrite post-processed files; the post-processed files are overwritten by default
    --embed-subs                     Embed subtitles in the video (only for mp4, webm and mkv videos)
    --embed-thumbnail                Embed thumbnail in the audio as cover art
    --add-metadata                   Write metadata to the video file
    --metadata-from-title FORMAT     Parse additional metadata like song title / artist from the video title. The format syntax is the same as --output. Regular expression with named
                                     capture groups may also be used. The parsed parameters replace existing values. Example: --metadata-from-title "%(artist)s - %(title)s" matches a
                                     title like "Coldplay - Paradise". Example (regex): --metadata-from-title "(?P<artist>.+?) - (?P<title>.+)"
    --xattrs                         Write metadata to the video file's xattrs (using dublin core and xdg standards)
    --fixup POLICY                   Automatically correct known faults of the file. One of never (do nothing), warn (only emit a warning), detect_or_warn (the default; fix file if we
                                     can, warn otherwise)
    --prefer-avconv                  Prefer avconv over ffmpeg for running the postprocessors (default)
    --prefer-ffmpeg                  Prefer ffmpeg over avconv for running the postprocessors
    --ffmpeg-location PATH           Location of the ffmpeg/avconv binary; either the path to the binary or its containing directory.
    --exec CMD                       Execute a command on the file after downloading, similar to find's -exec syntax. Example: --exec 'adb push {} /sdcard/Music/ && rm {}'
    --convert-subs FORMAT            Convert the subtitles to other format (currently supported: srt|ass|vtt|lrc)

https://rg3.github.io/youtube-dl/download.html

youtube-dl(官方下載)

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